Added: Thaddaeus Beckner - Date: 15.10.2021 10:44 - Views: 36309 - Clicks: 3239
In Kenya inan estimated 6. In andin collaboration with sex workers who had formed a network of self-help groups, we conducted an exploratory survey among sex workers in four rural towns and three Nairobi townships, regarding where they worked, the of clients they had and the risks they were exposed to. Participants were identified by a network of social contacts in the seven centres. Compared with women in rural towns, township sex workers were younger median age 22 vs. Issues of alternative sources of income, safety for sex workers and the conditions which create the necessity for sex work are vital to address.
Enaproximadamente el 6. Las participantes fueron seleccionadas por una red de contactos sociales en los siete centros. Es vital abordar las cuestiones relacionadas con otras fuentes de ingreso, la seguridad de las trabajadoras sexuales y las condiciones que crean la necesidad de realizar trabajo sexual.
Women who engage in commercial sex in sub-Saharan Africa are at high personal risk of physical and sexual violence, unwanted pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections STIs. In Kenya, where an estimated 6. Kenya is experiencing a serious epidemic of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, and unprotected heterosexual sex is sluts numbers most common method of spread of HIV.
Community interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections in sex workers have been taking place in Kenya in small groups since Policy on HIV prevention has long made sex workers a priority target, based on estimates of high s of client partners combined with unprotected sex.
Sex workers are frequently stigmatised in ways that predispose them to economically marginal living conditions and that make continued sex work necessary in order to maintain household income. When they have no alternative source of income, they are less likely to refuse clients who obviously have a sexually transmitted infection or insist on condom use. In Kenya, our experience in supporting women's self-help and income generation groups since revealed that such groups often tended to exclude sex workers.
ICROSS has therefore helped sex workers to set up and register self-help groups aimed at generating alternative sources of income. These programmes have ranged from the small-scale manufacture of clothing and tourist souvenirs to street photography. In collaboration with the women in these self-help groups, from June to March we conducted an exploratory survey of sex workers in seven areas to ascertain the nature of sex work and risks they were exposed to, to gain a better understanding of the characteristics and risk of abuse sluts numbers sexually transmitted infections that the women encountered.
The impetus to conduct this survey came from the women themselves and they were actively involved as interviewers. Of the seven study areas in which ICROSS had projects for sex workers, four areas—Bondo, Kiisi, Migori and Siaya—are provincial towns with relatively stable and settled, ethnically homogeneous populations. The remaining three—Dagoretti Market, Ngando and Ngong Town—are township areas on the outskirts of Nairobi, whose populations are more mobile, ethnically mixed and economically deprived than those in the provincial towns.
Interviewers were recruited from among women sex workers themselves. All had experience of survey interviewing through participation in other ICROSS programme planning and evaluation surveys. They were chosen on the basis of their personal knowledge of sex workers in the study areas, in order to maximise the survey coverage and response rate.
The interviewers helped to draft the questionnaire, advised on the suitability and acceptability of questions and on appropriate response. They also translated the questions into the different languages in which interviews took place. Translations were cross-checked by having a second person translate the questionnaire back into English.
There were two interviewers in each area sluts numbers in Dagoretti, where there were three. Interviewers were responsible for explaining the purpose of the survey to potential respondents and arranging a suitable interview time. Most interviews were conducted in the participant's home; all were sluts numbers in privacy. Respondents were informed that their participation was anonymous and voluntary. In the provincial towns, all but four sex workers were Luo-speaking and the four were Luyhia speakers, while in the township areas interviews were carried out in Sheng a Kenyan dialect of KiswahiliKikuyu, Kamba and Somali.
Potentially eligible participants were identified using peer networks. Sex workers were defined as women currently exchanging sexual services for money. Women were eligible to participate in the study if they were aged over 15 and had had at least one client in the week prior to interview.
The age of 15 was used because the legal situation regarding interviewing under-aged sex workers was not clear, and might have been used as a pretext to arrest the interviewers. As it happened, although no charges were brought, two interviewers in Nairobi were arrested and imprisoned for the duration of the study. Women were excluded from the study if they had not been active in sex work for part of the week prior to interview, to remove this as a source of bias in estimating client s.
For quality control, 50 interviews were repeated by a second interviewer within sluts numbers hours. None of the repeat interviews revealed any important discrepancies. A total of women were interviewed, of whom were in rural population centres and in townships Table 1. A further 14 interviews were abandoned, in 12 cases because the woman decided not to participate and in two cases because the interviewer realised that the respondent was a minor.
The women who conducted the surveys were asked to count the of sex workers known to them or to other women who could potentially have taken part in the study. While these estimates fall well short of being a census of sex workers, they give some indication of the study participation rates in the different centres. The smallest social network of sex workers was in Kisii Town, where the self-help group had been formed less than sluts numbers months prior to the date of the survey. The two latter townships are economically very deprived, and social networks among sex workers would be weaker than in other centres.
One provincial town, Migori, also had a low response rate, probably a reflection of the intolerance for sex work which characterises a of the religions of the area. Table 1 of participants and participation rates in the seven study centres. Only 27 worked in brothels, which are usually run by a group of women as a business. Nairobi township women were also less likely to be living with a stable partner. However, this difference was not statistically ificant when corrected for age.
There was no ificant difference between township and rural town women in respect of the s with children. Overall, roughly half the women had at least one other job as a source of income in the week of the survey. We examined differences between the women who worked in bars, hotels, bus stages and discos and those who worked in other settings; no ificant differences emerged in any of the variables; however, the small s available give these comparisons low statistical power. Unwanted pregnancy and abortion were common, with There was no difference between township and rural town sex workers sluts numbers the prevalence of abortion.
Two-thirds of the women had been treated for a sexually transmitted infections in the six months. Township women had a higher risk of reporting treatment for a sexually transmitted infections risk ratio 1. None of the indices of sexual violence differed ificantly between township and rural women. The median of clients in the week was nine among the Nairobi township women and four among the rural town women Table 4. A quarter of township women had eight clients a week or fewer, and three-quarters had 11 or fewer. In order to assess the economic ificance of sex work, we established the current costs of commercial sex using local informants Table 5data collected January Table 5 Typical charges for sexual services, by district, in Kenya shillings Ksh.
The typical charges for sexual services did not vary ificantly within districts. Charges were higher for all forms of sex in the Nairobi townships, frequently by a factor of two. Translated into economic terms, the difference between sex work in the townships sluts numbers rural towns is thereby accentuated.
Sex workers in Sluts numbers have been doubly disadvantaged in the recent past. Not only do they run serious risks of physical and sexual violence, but they have also been stigmatised as carrying the main responsibility for spreading HIV. Inevitably, it has also helped to draw attention away from male sexual behaviour, and put the onus of disease prevention on the women.
While much of the literature has focused on the potential of sex workers to infect others with HIV, little has been written about the need to protect sex workers from abuse and disease.
Of these, 24 were concerned with sexually transmitted infections. The only apparent exception, which examined the use of health services by sex workers, was in fact about the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and patterns of condom use. Before discussing our findings, we sluts numbers draw attention to the methods used both to identify respondents and to collect data in the present study.
By their very nature, sex workers are resistant to random or other representative sampling methods. By using peer networks to identify potential participants, we aimed to increase representativeness. Nonetheless, this may have biased our findings. It is likely that the data under-represent women who see few clients or who spend only a limited proportion of the year engaged in sex work.
The data also, in all likelihood, over-represent women who work in settings such as hostels and bars, where several sex workers tend to be active. Taken together, these factors may bias the of clients upwards in our sample.Sluts numbers
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Sex Workers in Kenya, s of Clients and Associated Risks: An Exploratory Survey